- Effects of original background music（BGM）on the mastication and swallow movements of elementary school lunch period
- 論文掲載日：2021/09/18 第21巻
- Purpose: According to the 2015 Infant Nutrition Survey (Ministry of Health, Labour & Welfare, 2015), approximately 30% of Japanese children are unable to masticate effectively, and education to promote effective mastication movement in children with large individual differences in mastication ability is desired. The purpose of this study was to confirm whether mastication and swallowing education(MSE） using the original BGM for 10 minutes during a school lunch period consisting of a 20-minute meal time promotes masticatory and swallowing movements.
Method: The subjects were 100 children in three classes of first grade of elementary school (Kanagawa, Japan), and each class was divided into three groups: Group A) a control group with no BGM and no MSE, Group B) with BGM and no MSE, and C) with BGM and MSE, comprising of training for 3 weeks. The tempo of the original BGM was set to 120 beats per minute (BPM) based on the number of masticatory movements per minute (mastication speed); in this case, the average number was 58 times per minute. This average mastication speed was obtained from the quantitative data collected via video recording of the masticatory movement of the children who had participated in a previous study. The three groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test along with the application of the Bonferroni correction to counteract the problem of multiple comparisons. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for overall and quartile group comparisons.
Results: Between Groups A, B, and C post-intervention data, there was a significant increase in masticatory speed in a Group C (p < 0.05). A significant increase in masticatory speed was observed in a Group C considering the pre-and-post-intervention same group data the intervention (p <0.05). In the pre-and post-quartile comparisons of each of the three groups, a significant increase in masticatory speed was observed only in a Group C, first group (low masticatory speed group) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: MSE with original background music created based on the human factor experiment conducted by Sakuma et al. reported in ‘Int J of Social Sciences, 6(2), 193-207, 2020’ improved children's masticatory speed. Especially, it was found to be particularly effective for children with slow masticatory speed, and we propose this as an educational method to promote mastication and swallowing movements during school lunch time for elementary school children.
Keywords: mastication and swallowing, background music, masticatory speed, school lunch, dietary and nutrition education
- Underestimated active joint motions in patients with distal radius fractures:
An observational study
- 論文掲載日：2021/08/21 第21巻
- Purpose: Accumulating evidence indicates that underestimation of movements of the fractured hands
leads to delayed recovery of motor function in patients with distal radius fractures (DRF). This study
aimed to clarify the underestimated active range of motion (ROM) of a fractured hand in patients with DRF.
Subjects and Methods: This single-center, observational study included adult female with DRF or without
fractures in the upper limbs and hands. They were divided into the following three groups: (1) DRF,
(2) healthy and unrestricted ROM, and (3) healthy and limited ROM with jigs. All participants estimated
ROM of the wrist and forearm joints at the fracture side based on that at the healthy side. Analysis of
covariance was used to determine differences among the three groups. Outcome measures were differences
between actual and self-conjectural ROM.
Results: The subjective ROM degrees of DRF patients were -20° for volar flexion, -21° for dorsal flexion, -31° for
pronation, and -24° for supination, which were lower than those of Non-fracture participants.
Significant differences between subjectively estimated and actual ROM degrees among groups in wrist joint
volar flexion (χ2 = 26.01, p < 0.01), dorsal flexion (χ2 = 24.00, p < 0.01), pronation (χ2 = 14.10, p < 0.01),
and supination (χ2 = 15.19, p < 0.01) were observed.
Conclusions: This study indicates that self-conjectural ROM of injured joints is underestimated in patients with DRF.
Our findings suggest that active movements should be encouraged in DRF patients with modest hand use.
Key words: Distal radius fracture, Rehabilitation, Self-conjecture, ADL, Range of motion
- Evaluation of strings braided by using the Kumihimo Disk
-Comparisons between beginners and experts-
- 論文掲載日：2021/06/27 第21巻
- Purpose: Beginners and experts made Kumihimo (a Japanese braid) using the Kumihimo Disk by controlling the braiding movements and differences in the shape, flexibility, tactile sensation, appearance, and the comprehensive evaluation of the braided strings between beginners and experts were examined.
Methods: Beginners (N = 21) and experts (N = 18) braided the Yatsu-kongoh Z-spiral. We measured the thickness and aspect ratio of the braided strings, evaluated the flexibility and tactile sensation, and made a comprehensive evaluation based on a five-point scale.
Results: Strings braided by experts obtained higher scores for appearance and comprehensiveness compared to strings made by beginners. Braids made by experts were less flexible and had a hard texture. No correlation in evaluation scores was indicated between the thickness, flexibility, or tactile sensation of braids made by experts. Moreover, a significant correlation was not indicated between the years of experience and the appearance or comprehensive evaluation scores.
Conclusion: The results indicated that braids made by beginners tend to be thicker and have a softer texture. Variables other than the aspect ratio were not correlated with the appearance evaluation, and there was a significant correlation between comprehensive evaluation scores and the variation in thickness and tactile sensations evaluation scores of braids made by experts. The functions of the string are crucial in the comprehensive evaluation, which might have increased the correlation with tactile evaluation.
Keywords: Kumihimo Disk, the thickness of braided strings, tactile evaluation, flexibility evaluation, aspect ratio
- 3D Assessment of Facial Symmetry for Quantitative Diagnosis of Facial Paralysis
- 論文掲載日：2021/03/05 第21巻
- Objective: Facial paralysis is most commonly assessed using a 10-item, 40-point method, with a facial nerve grading system. It has been highlighted that while it is easy for inspectors to be subjective when using these methods, there are problems with objectivity and reproducibility. Furthermore, detailed evaluations using these methods are limited. This study aims to propose a novel objective method for evaluating facial paralysis, considering changes in the depth direction of the face.
Method: 3D shape data of the face are acquired using a Kinect sensor, and facial paralysis is evaluated using 3D shape assessment.
Results: Faces were photographed at rest and when performing facial exercises, such as inflating one cheek, tightly closing both eyes, and closing only one eye. The symmetry of facial movements was calculated using the distance between corresponding points, captured in the shape data point cloud, while at rest and during the facial exercises.
Conclusions: This study proposes a novel objective method to assess facial paralysis that considers changes in the depth direction of the face. The calculations of the symmetry of facial movements using a 3D shape data point cloud, obtained using a Kinect sensor to photograph eight varieties of facial exercises, confirmed that the proposed method objectively and quantitatively evaluates left-right motions.
Keywords: Facial paralysis, Yanagihara method, 3D quantitative evaluation method, Kinect sensor, ICP algorithm
- Points to note when beginners make Kumihimo using the Kumihimo Disk
-Factors affecting the evaluation of braided strings-
- 論文掲載日：2021/03/04 第21巻
- Purpose: Points to note when beginners make Kumihimo (a Japanese braid) using Kumihimo Disks were examined based on the relationships between the braided string's thickness and hardness.
Methods: University students braided the Yatsu-kongoh Z-spiral using the Kumihimo Disk, and the length and thickness of the braided strings were measured. The hardness and flexibility of the braided strings were evaluated by touching them using a five-point scale. The evaluations for flexibility and hardness were nearly consistent. Therefore, the flexibility was defined as the hardness of the string.
Results: Significant negative correlations were indicated between hardness and length, thickness, and thickness variation. The results of simple correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis indicated a significant effect of the number of mistakes and thickness variation on appearance evaluation. On the other hand, simple correlation analysis results indicated that the number of mistakes, thickness variations, and hardness significantly affected comprehensive evaluations. Moreover, multiple regression analysis results indicated a significant effect of the number of mistakes and thickness variations on the comprehensive evaluation.
Conclusion: Although appearance evaluation is essential from an aesthetic perspective, the string's hardness and thickness are critical when considering braided strings' functions in the comprehensive evaluation. The results of the present study indicated that harder and thinner strings were more highly evaluated. Therefore, beginners should try to braid harder and thinner strings.
Keywords: Kumihimo Disk, the thickness of braided strings, the hardness of braided strings, appearance evaluation, the evaluation of braided strings