- Differences in manual exercise therapy skills between students and therapists
- 論文掲載日：2019/04/02 第19巻
- Purpose: We have developed a hemiparetic patient arm robot (Samothrace: SAMO) for repeated practicing of manual exercise therapy. In this study, and our aim is to quantify the differences in manual exercise therapy skills between students and therapists.
Subjects and Methods: The subjects consisted of one occupational therapist and three fourth-year university students. Examples of elbow joint exercises were displayed on a PC screen, and while observing the examples, the subjects passively flexed and extended the elbow joint of the arm robot, with the exercises being recorded by SAMO.
Results and Conclusion: When comparing the movement of the elbow joint of the robot, the maximum flexion angle of the robot arm was significantly smaller in the case of the students than the occupational therapist, and the maximum extension angle was larger for the students than the therapist. Further, the maximum angular velocity and maximum angular acceleration with which the students moved the elbow joint of the robot was significantly higher than those of the occupational therapist. The results obtained showed that the frequencies of articular movement by students were smaller than those in the examples and those of the therapist, and the cycle of joint angle changes was prolonged. In addition, the force applied to the robot arm by the students had a longer cycle than that in the examples. These results verified that, compared to the therapist, the students were not fully versed in the passive exercises corresponding to passive abnormal muscle tone in an elbow joint flexor group and an extensor group.
- Fall prediction accuracy of visual spatial abilities tests in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective study
- 論文掲載日：2019/03/22 第19巻
- Objective: The purpose of the present study was to conduct five visual spatial abilities tests frequently used in Japan (clock drawing test [CDT], overlapping figures test of the Visual Perception Test for Agnosia [overlapping figures test], construction of the Japan version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale [constructions], intersecting pentagon copying test [PCT] of the Mini-Mental State Examination, and Yamaguchi fox-pigeon imitation test [YFPIT]) on patients with the same disease, and to compare the fall prediction accuracy of these tests.
Methods: The participants comprised 35 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients (average age: 80.5 ± 6.5 years old). We compared the results of the five visual spatial abilities tests using the χ2 and Mann–Whitney U tests. We performed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using evaluation indicators that showed a significant difference between two groups as independent variables and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) and cutoff value.
Results: Only in CDT (p = .032, effect size: r = -.36) and overlapping figures test (p = .020, effect size: r = -.39) were the results of the fall group worse than those of the non-fall group. For CDT, the AUC of falls was 0.711 (95% conﬁdence interval [CI]: .538–.884, p = .033), while the sensitivity and specificity at three cutoff values were 82.4% and 55.6%, respectively. For overlapping figures test, the AUC was 0.699 (95% CI: .524–.875, p = .044), while the sensitivity and specificity at one cutoff value were 55.6% and 82.4%, respectively.
Conclusion: The AUC of falls for CDT and overlapping figures test, which both showed between-group differences, indicated that overlapping figures test had low fall prediction accuracy and the CDT had moderate prediction accuracy. Thus, CDT can be considered a simple visual spatial abilities test that can be used for screening and predicting falls in AD patients. Further investigations with a larger sample size are required.
Keywords: Visual spatial abilities, Fall, Clock drawing test
- Key behavioral patterns of voters given word-of-mouth and electronic word-of-mouth information on political candidates
- 論文掲載日：2019/01/14 第19巻
- Purpose: When we make various decisions, we tend to be influenced by external information, especially opinions of others. Past studies revealed that WOM (word-of-mouth) and EWOM (electronic word-of-mouth) influences on decision making, among which several WOM factors influence on voting. This study examines how WOM and EWOM information regarding electoral candidates influence voters, when both WOM and EWOM information exist and often conflict with one another.
Method: Principal component analysis of participants’ gender, age, grade, internet proficiency, and interest in politics, together with positive and negative WOM and EWOM information corresponding to sixteen aspects of electoral candidates, has revealed four unique behavioral patterns of voters.
Result: These patterns suggest that voter behavior varies according to whether given information is personality-oriented or not and whether given information is positive-oriented or negative-oriented. Also, there is a difference in susceptibility to WOM and EWOM information, but only with respect to positive information.
Conclusion: All three of our hypotheses concerning behavioral patterns of voters have been proven by the results.
Keywords: word-of-mouth, electronic word-of-mouth, voting, persona, election, policy, electoral behavior, political marketing, social network
- Ceiling and floor effects for functional independence measure, Hyogo activities of daily living scale,
and assessment of motor and process skills in Alzheimer's disease
- 論文掲載日：2019/01/08 第19巻
- Objective: This study aimed to examine the presence or absence of ceiling and floor effects for the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Hyogo Activities of Daily Living Scale (HADLS), and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Methods: The participants consisted of 105 patients with AD. The results of the FIM, HADLS, and AMPS were evaluated. The ceiling and floor effects were defined as when the participants with the highest score and those with the lowest score accounted for over 20% of all the participants, which is consistent with the report.
Results: Ceiling effects were not observed in the FIM, HADLS, and AMPS results. Floor effects were observed in the HADLS-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores (23 participants with the lowest score). The AMPS scores for the 23 participants had a wide range. Ceiling effects were observed in many FIM and HADLS sub-scales. Floor effects in the subscales were found only for 10 HADLS-IADL items.
Conclusion: Floor effects were observed in the HADLS-IADL and not in the AMPS scores. The AMPS scores among the 23 participants who recorded the lowest score of the HADLS-IADL had a wide range. These findings indicate that residual ability that cannot be measured by the HADLS-IADL may be fully understood by evaluating motor and process skills in the IADL using AMPS.
Keywords: clinical dementia rating，process skills，instrumental activities of daily living
- Influence of the menstrual cycle on sleep parameters and autonomic nervous response
- 論文掲載日：2018/07/12 第18巻
- Background: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in sleep patterns, sleep quality, and autonomic nervous responses during the follicular phase (FP) and luteal phase (LP) of the menstrual cycle.
Participants and Methods: Fifteen healthy women aged 19–30 years participated in the present study, and the following measurements were carried out in their homes for 2 nights during each of the two menstrual phases. The data obtained in the first night were excluded to get rid of first-night effect. We examined the R-R interval variability for 150 min from the onset of sleep, and objective measurements of some sleep parameters were recorded using Nemuri Scan mat placed beneath the participant’s mattress. The following morning, participants recorded their subjective perceptions of the parameters. Changes in autonomic functions were estimated by the time domain for RR intervals or the Lorenz plot method. The parameters were compared between FP and LP using Wilcoxon signed rank test and the correlation was tested using Spearman correlations.
Results: We found no significant differences between the sleep parameters in FP and those in LP. We found a positive correlation between sleep quality and total sleep time (r = 0.552, P ＝ 0.041) or the basal body temperature (r = 0.684, P = 0.007) in LP, but not in FP (r = 0.138, P > 0.05; r = −0.354, P > 0.05). We observed correlations between total sleep time and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive RRIs for 150 min after sleep onset in autonomic nervous response parameters in FP (r = −0.538, P = 0.047) and in LP (r = −0.525, P = 0.054). However, we observed correlation between total sleep time and the longitudinal variability / transverse variability of Lorenz plot for 150 min after sleep onset in FP (r = 0.591, P = 0.026), but not in LP (r = 0.424, P = 0.131).
Conclusions: It is suggested that sleep quality may be correlated with total sleep time in LP, and total sleep time may have a stronger correlation with the autonomic nervous response in FP than that in LP. We observed that sleep during the menstrual cycle is influenced by the autonomic nervous response of sleep onset. The balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous responses may affect total sleep time.
Key words: sleep parameters, sleep quality, menstrual cycle, autonomic nervous response