Issues : JET is a peer-reviewed, open-access scientific journal : Journal of Ergonomic Technology (JET)

Journal of Ergonomic Technology (JET)
ISSN 2432-1575


Outcome model analysis-based results of actual tissue anatomy exercise for nursing students using non-fixed pig organs
Publish Date : 2016/09/27  Vol.16
Authors : 
Masaaki TAKAYANAGI, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University
Manami NOZAKI, Department of Fundamental Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Toho University
Tomokazu KAWASHIMA, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University
Hideo HOSHI, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University
Tadanobu Chuyo KAMIJO, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University
Fumi SATO, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University
Report Outline : 
Purpose: Knowledge of anatomy and physiology forms not only the foundation of nursing, but is also a necessity of the profession. However, using donated formalin-fixed human cadavers for real-tissue anatomy exercises to teach nursing students is not the standard in Japan. Reports suggest that non-fixed tissues, specifically raw pig hearts and kidneys, can be used as an alternative to formalin-fixed cadavers for anatomical exercises. The purpose of this outcome model was to clarify the key elements of these real-tissue exercises to increase the safety and effectiveness of anatomy education for nursing students.
Subjects and Methods: An analysis of the ease of study and safety of real-tissue anatomy learning exercises for nursing students was conducted using an outcome model. Inputs, processes, and outcomes were the lateral aspects of the model, and client, provider, and setting perspectives were the vertical aspects. Inputs were represented by the organization of real-tissue anatomy exercises, processes by educational activities, and outcomes by the results of the anatomy exercises conducted. Clients comprised nursing students, providers comprised teaching staff, and the setting was the Department of Nursing.
Conclusion: The benefits of real-tissue anatomy exercises in helping nursing students understand course material were evaluated. Results suggest that both exercises, i.e. the anatomy learning exercises of hearts and that of kidneys, offered large advantages in anatomy instruction. In their post-exercise reports, students expressed that their understanding of course materials was deeper after participating in the real-tissue exercise. They also reported that 3 study sessions, the combination of the real-tissue exercise with pre-exercise study and writing post-exercise reports, were effective based on their understanding of the material. When reviewing the outcomes cases, students (clients) mentioned the difficulty of the dissection procedures, whereas teaching staff (providers) has to provide sufficient technique of anatomy. Although non-fixed pig hearts and kidneys are most suitable as alternative specimens, the need to ventilate the classroom laboratory (setting) to remove the odour of the dissection specimens and ammonia was raised. Compared with donated human cadavers, using non-fixed pig hearts for real-tissue anatomy exercises allows for a more easily managed work environment. We believe that such specimens may also be used for dissection exercises among nursing students and students in other fields.

Keywords: Anatomical education, nursing students, heart, kidney, outcome model analysis.
Count : 638
Psychological response to moving distance and velocity of haptic device that evokes inertia and detent sensations
Publish Date : 2016/06/22  Vol.16
Authors : 
Hidenobu Takao, Kanagawa Institute of Technology
Makoto Abe, Tohoku Pioneer Corporation
Ryosuke Katayama, Kanagawa Institute of Technology
Jun Osugi, Pioneer Corporation
Report Outline : 
Purpose: In this study, a "haptic device" that, when a finger (or thumb) is slid on its touchpad, replicates the sliding movement in the direction slid by the finger pulp at a set distance and velocity, with mechanical force feedback, was attached to the steering wheel of a driving simulator (DS) and used to experimentally derive the characteristics of the inertia and detent sensations perceived by the driver.
Test Subjects and Method: Ten healthy university students, ages in the range 18-22 years, and each possessing a standard motor vehicle driver’s license, participated as subjects. A DS environment was configured with the haptic device mounted on a steering wheel. Haptic stimuli under 25 conditions, comprising combinations of five stages of sliding distances and five stages of sliding velocities, were presented to the subjects. As each subject simulated driving on a completely straight DS road, he/she performed operations with his/her right thumb on the pad, and standard stimuli and comparative stimuli were respectively presented. The magnitude estimation method was used to measure the psychological quantity indicating the extent of the inertia and detent sensations perceived at the thumb pulp for each pad manipulation exercise above.
Conclusions: All test subjects perceived inertia and detent sensations from the haptic device. However, velocity changes at maximum travel distances of 0.8 mm and under were not perceivable. Under all other conditions, independent increases of the maximum travel distance and velocity, respectively, caused significant increases in the psychological sensations of inertia and detent. As regards the relationships between maximum travel distance and velocity and the psychological sensations of inertia and detent, a "power exponent" was obtained that can serve as fundamental data for (future) designs.

Keywords: Haptic interface, Human-machine interaction, ITS, Car informatics, Human factors
Count : 771
Application of Discrete Laplace's Equation to Create Topography Map of Near-infrared Spectroscopy Signal
Publish Date : 2015/03/01  Vol.15
Authors : 
Kotaro TAKEDA, Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Murayama Medical Center
Yutaka TOMITA, Fujita Memorial Nanakuri Institute, Fujita Health University
Report Outline : 
Original article
Appeared on Ergonomics of Human System Interaction, Vol. 15, No. 1, 6/11, 2013

Abstract: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables non-invasive measurement of hemoglobin concentration changes in the cerebral cortex. Creation of a topography map is an important evaluation method used in clinical NIRS studies. In this study, we used Laplace's equation method to create topography maps of NIRS. The method was tested and found to converge very precisely. The method was applied to NIRS signals, and it gave a smooth picture, which did not contradict our physiological knowledge. Finally, a noisy signal was omitted and a topography map was constructed without the information of the corresponding channel, with accurate results.
Keywords: Oxygenated hemoglobin, fNIRS, Optical Topography
Count : 738
A simple load sensor aiming applications of subsidiary behavior evaluation
Publish Date : 2015/03/01  Vol.15
Authors : 
Kaoru, SUZUKI, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hose University
Hayato HIYAMA, KSP-SP Co., Ltd.
Takeshi OKADA, COMCO Corporation
Report Outline : 
Original article
Appeared on Ergonomics of Human System Interaction, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1/5, 2013.

This paper deals with a simple and cost effective load sensor aiming applications of subsidiary behavior evaluation. A key device of the sensor is a force sensitive resistor, It is sold as 'force sensitive', haves as 'pressurized area sensitive' however. The authors combined the resistor with hemisphere shaped rubber feet and an electric circuit based on a current/voltage converter, and thus constructed the sensor. The sensors ere used to evaluate area of postural sway while performing VDT work with sitting posture. The areas obtained from proposed sensors were correlated highly with that obtained from traditional force plates.

Keywords: Postural sway, VDT work, Subsidiary behavior, Load sensor
Count : 191
Sound Environmental Improvement in Open Classroom by Sound Masking
Publish Date : 2014/03/01  Vol.14
Authors : 
Yutaka TOMITA, Fujita Health University
Kazutami SUKA, Keio University
Report Outline : 
Original article
Appeared on Ergonomics of Human System Interaction, Vol. 14, No. 1, 9/14, 2012

Recently many student experiment training rooms are becoming open type, in which partitions separate the rooms, and lecturers give instructions. Although in the open space experiment training rooms students feel open, easy to move and easy to arrange experiment subjects, voices of lecturers interfere so much and as a consequence the interference interrupt the lectures in next compartments.
To make better sound environment which does not annoy lectures was aimed by generating particular masking noise, which reduces the interference from other lecturers. The generated noise was kept at the same sound level as air-conditioning equipments.
so the best suited masking noise using multiple sound samples was devised.
This paper describes the outline and the assessment experiment of this sound masking system specific to our student experimental laboratory.
Count : 224
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