- Fall prediction accuracy of visual spatial abilities tests in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective study
- Publish Date : 2019/03/22 Vol.19
- Report Outline :
- Objective: The purpose of the present study was to conduct five visual spatial abilities tests frequently used in Japan (clock drawing test [CDT], overlapping figures test of the Visual Perception Test for Agnosia [overlapping figures test], construction of the Japan version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale [constructions], intersecting pentagon copying test [PCT] of the Mini-Mental State Examination, and Yamaguchi fox-pigeon imitation test [YFPIT]) on patients with the same disease, and to compare the fall prediction accuracy of these tests.
Methods: The participants comprised 35 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients (average age: 80.5 ± 6.5 years old). We compared the results of the five visual spatial abilities tests using the χ2 and Mann–Whitney U tests. We performed a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using evaluation indicators that showed a significant difference between two groups as independent variables and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) and cutoff value.
Results: Only in CDT (p = .032, effect size: r = -.36) and overlapping figures test (p = .020, effect size: r = -.39) were the results of the fall group worse than those of the non-fall group. For CDT, the AUC of falls was 0.711 (95% conﬁdence interval [CI]: .538–.884, p = .033), while the sensitivity and specificity at three cutoff values were 82.4% and 55.6%, respectively. For overlapping figures test, the AUC was 0.699 (95% CI: .524–.875, p = .044), while the sensitivity and specificity at one cutoff value were 55.6% and 82.4%, respectively.
Conclusion: The AUC of falls for CDT and overlapping figures test, which both showed between-group differences, indicated that overlapping figures test had low fall prediction accuracy and the CDT had moderate prediction accuracy. Thus, CDT can be considered a simple visual spatial abilities test that can be used for screening and predicting falls in AD patients. Further investigations with a larger sample size are required.
Keywords: Visual spatial abilities, Fall, Clock drawing test
- Key behavioral patterns of voters given word-of-mouth and electronic word-of-mouth information on political candidates
- Publish Date : 2019/01/14 Vol.19
- Report Outline :
- Purpose: When we make various decisions, we tend to be influenced by external information, especially opinions of others. Past studies revealed that WOM (word-of-mouth) and EWOM (electronic word-of-mouth) influences on decision making, among which several WOM factors influence on voting. This study examines how WOM and EWOM information regarding electoral candidates influence voters, when both WOM and EWOM information exist and often conflict with one another.
Method: Principal component analysis of participants’ gender, age, grade, internet proficiency, and interest in politics, together with positive and negative WOM and EWOM information corresponding to sixteen aspects of electoral candidates, has revealed four unique behavioral patterns of voters.
Result: These patterns suggest that voter behavior varies according to whether given information is personality-oriented or not and whether given information is positive-oriented or negative-oriented. Also, there is a difference in susceptibility to WOM and EWOM information, but only with respect to positive information.
Conclusion: All three of our hypotheses concerning behavioral patterns of voters have been proven by the results.
Keywords: word-of-mouth, electronic word-of-mouth, voting, persona, election, policy, electoral behavior, political marketing, social network
- Ceiling and floor effects for functional independence measure, Hyogo activities of daily living scale,
and assessment of motor and process skills in Alzheimer's disease
- Publish Date : 2019/01/08 Vol.19
- Report Outline :
- Objective: This study aimed to examine the presence or absence of ceiling and floor effects for the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Hyogo Activities of Daily Living Scale (HADLS), and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Methods: The participants consisted of 105 patients with AD. The results of the FIM, HADLS, and AMPS were evaluated. The ceiling and floor effects were defined as when the participants with the highest score and those with the lowest score accounted for over 20% of all the participants, which is consistent with the report.
Results: Ceiling effects were not observed in the FIM, HADLS, and AMPS results. Floor effects were observed in the HADLS-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores (23 participants with the lowest score). The AMPS scores for the 23 participants had a wide range. Ceiling effects were observed in many FIM and HADLS sub-scales. Floor effects in the subscales were found only for 10 HADLS-IADL items.
Conclusion: Floor effects were observed in the HADLS-IADL and not in the AMPS scores. The AMPS scores among the 23 participants who recorded the lowest score of the HADLS-IADL had a wide range. These findings indicate that residual ability that cannot be measured by the HADLS-IADL may be fully understood by evaluating motor and process skills in the IADL using AMPS.
Keywords: clinical dementia rating，process skills，instrumental activities of daily living
- Influence of the menstrual cycle on sleep parameters and autonomic nervous response
- Publish Date : 2018/07/12 Vol.18
- Report Outline :
- Background: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in sleep patterns, sleep quality, and autonomic nervous responses during the follicular phase (FP) and luteal phase (LP) of the menstrual cycle.
Participants and Methods: Fifteen healthy women aged 19–30 years participated in the present study, and the following measurements were carried out in their homes for 2 nights during each of the two menstrual phases. The data obtained in the first night were excluded to get rid of first-night effect. We examined the R-R interval variability for 150 min from the onset of sleep, and objective measurements of some sleep parameters were recorded using Nemuri Scan mat placed beneath the participant’s mattress. The following morning, participants recorded their subjective perceptions of the parameters. Changes in autonomic functions were estimated by the time domain for RR intervals or the Lorenz plot method. The parameters were compared between FP and LP using Wilcoxon signed rank test and the correlation was tested using Spearman correlations.
Results: We found no significant differences between the sleep parameters in FP and those in LP. We found a positive correlation between sleep quality and total sleep time (r = 0.552, P ＝ 0.041) or the basal body temperature (r = 0.684, P = 0.007) in LP, but not in FP (r = 0.138, P > 0.05; r = −0.354, P > 0.05). We observed correlations between total sleep time and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive RRIs for 150 min after sleep onset in autonomic nervous response parameters in FP (r = −0.538, P = 0.047) and in LP (r = −0.525, P = 0.054). However, we observed correlation between total sleep time and the longitudinal variability / transverse variability of Lorenz plot for 150 min after sleep onset in FP (r = 0.591, P = 0.026), but not in LP (r = 0.424, P = 0.131).
Conclusions: It is suggested that sleep quality may be correlated with total sleep time in LP, and total sleep time may have a stronger correlation with the autonomic nervous response in FP than that in LP. We observed that sleep during the menstrual cycle is influenced by the autonomic nervous response of sleep onset. The balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous responses may affect total sleep time.
Key words: sleep parameters, sleep quality, menstrual cycle, autonomic nervous response
- A Study of the Color Features Related to the Feeling of “Han-nari” in Women’s Japanese Kimono
- Publish Date : 2018/07/01 Vol.18
- Report Outline :
- Purpose: By using ten different types of kimono images, we investigated the physical quantities that constitute the feeling of “Han-nari”, a term used for expressing a certain kind of beauty specific to kimonos.
Participants and methods: Thirty students (22 males and 8 females) participated the experiment. Ten kimono images were shown on a screen, and the participants evaluated them based on their degree of “Han-nari”. The images were analyzed with RGB histograms and with u’,v’ chromaticity diagrams that were converted from RGB values. The brightness of the images was measured with brightness-meter.
Result: We found that the kimonos with “white” and “whitish yellow” colors strongly influenced the degree of “Han-nari” reported, and as the brightness of the kimono image increased, it showed a clear correlation with an increase in the reported degree of “Han-nari”.
Conclusions: Quantifying the feeling of “Han-nari” makes it possible to extract one factor of the beauty of kimono. Until now, the sense of “Han-nari” that a kimono might have depended entirely on the tacit knowledge of craftsmen. However, in order to clarify the definition of “Han-nari” by utilizing numerical values, kimonos that evoke a sense of “Han-nari” could be created by industrial production. This could eventually help to revive the kimono industry and is useful in passing kimono culture on to future generations. We were able to quantify the color and brightness associated with a sense of “Han-nari” in this research. This method is not limited to kimonos and could be applied to other industrial products.
Keywords: kansei, color, brightness, kimono; obi